Sunday, May 8, 2022

The 116th Army Band: A History

By Maj. William Carraway

Historian, Georgia Army National Guard


Left: CAMP COTTON, El Paso, Texas - Sergeant Theo Barber and Soldiers of the Georgia National Guard's 5th Georgia Infantry Regiment
on duty on the Mexican Border in 1916. In 1917, the 5th Georgia was redesignated the 122nd Infantry Regiment. Photo courtesy of Tom Barber.
Right: Sergeant Dominiqui Green and the 116th Army Band provide musical support to the adjutant general change of command ceremony
Jan. 26, 2019 at the Clay National Guard Center. Photo by Maj. William Carraway.

Early History

The 116th Army Band carries the lineage and honors of the Gate City Guard which was organized in Atlanta January 8, 1857 and received its charter from the Governor of Georgia in 1859. On March 18, 1861, the Gate City Guard was mustered into Confederate service for one year as part of the 1st Georgia Infantry Regiment.[1]

As one of the earliest militia units to tender its services, the Gate City Guard adopted the motto First In War. Upon the end of their term of service in March 1862 many of the Soldiers of the Gate City Guard reenlisted and served in separate units.

First Lt. William H. Moncrief, asst. surgeon
of the 2nd GVI. Georgia National Guard Archives.

With the reorganization of the Georgia Militia following the American Civil War and reconstruction, the Gate City Guard reformed July 24, 1874 as an element of the Georgia Volunteers, Atlanta Battalion. The Guard was reorganized as a separate unit April 16, 1890 and on June 10, 1896 was reorganized and redesignated Company L, 5th Infantry Regiment, Georgia Volunteers.

During the Spanish American War, Georgia organized three volunteer regiments. Elements of the 5th Infantry Regiment were consolidated with other Georgia Guard units to form the 2nd Georgia Volunteer Infantry Regiment. The 2nd GVI was mustered into federal service In May 1898 at Griffin, Ga. The regiment advanced to Tampa, Fla. May 21, 1898.[2] Less than a week later, the 2nd was assigned to the Seventh Army Corps commanded by former Confederate Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee. The 2nd initially received orders to deploy to Cuba then Puerto Rico, but ultimately, transportation was not available by the time the war ended. The volunteers of the 2nd GVI returned to Georgia and were mustered out of federal service in November along with the 1st GVI and Georgia Light Artillery.[3]

World War I Era

In July 1916, The Gate City Guard and other units of the Georgia National Guard were mobilized to Texas in response to unrest along the southwest border. The 5th Georgia served at Camp Cotton, El Paso Texas where its Soldiers conducted patrols and manned sentry posts along the border with Mexico, Returning in March 1917, the Soldiers remained on active federal service due to the declaration of war against Germany. The 5th Georgia, along with other elements of the Georgia National Guard, was sent to Camp Wheeler in Macon for premobilization training. On October 1, 1917, the 5th Georgia was redesignated the 122nd Infantry Regiment with the Gate City Guard forming Company L.

CAMP WHEELER, Macon, Ga., February 5, 1918 – The 121st and 122nd Infantry Regiments of the 61st Brigade, 31st Division on parade.
National Archives Records Administration.

The 122nd Infantry Regiment departed for France as part of the 31st Division. Arriving too late to take part in large scale combat operations, the 122nd returned to the United States and was inactivated at Camp Gordon, Ga. January 14, 1919.

With the reorganization of the Georgia National Guard, the Gate City Guard reformed as Company F, 1st Infantry in Atlanta March 25, 1921. The company underwent several redesignations over the next three years culminating with its redesignation as Company F, 122nd Infantry Regiment June 9, 1924. That year, the 122nd Infantry Regiment modified the motto of the Gate City Guard to serve as the regiment’s motto: “First In Peace and in War.”

World War II Era

On July 1, 1939, the battalions of the 122nd were converted and redesignated. The 3rd Battalion with units based in Elberton, Cedartown and Calhoun became the 2nd Battalion, 214th Field Artillery Regiment. This battalion would see service in the Pacific Theater as the 950th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion. The lineage of the 950th AA AWB is perpetuated by the 1st Squadron 108th Cavalry Regiment.[4]

The 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 122nd converted to form the 179th Field Artillery Regiment which carried the motto of the 122nd Infantry Regiment on its unit insignia. The Gate City Guard comprised Company F of the 179th FA. The 179th entered federal service February 24, 1941. After one week at home station, the 179th was sent to Camp Blanding near Jacksonville, Fla. along with their newly issued 155 Schneider Howitzers to begin initial training.[5]

The 179th remained at Camp Blanding through the winter of 1941 and in March 1942 moved by truck to Camp Shelby, Miss. The trip took the battalion three days to complete. During their stay at Camp Shelby, the 179th participated in the Louisiana Maneuvers and conducted firing drills.

On February 8, 1943, the 179th Field Artillery Regiment underwent its most dramatic transformation since its conversion from the 122nd Infantry four years previous. The 1st Battalion was designated the 179th FA Battalion. The former regimental headquarters constituted the 179th FA Group.[6]The second battalion was designated the 945th Field Artillery Battalion with the Gate City Guard reorganized as Battery C, 945th.

Collar discs and unit insignia of the 179th Field Artillery Battalion and its predecessor, the 122nd Infantry Regiment. Photo by Maj. William Carraway.

Mobilized to the European theater of operations, the 945th and 179th landed at Utah beach August 12, 1944 and fought their way from Northern France to Germany before mustering out of service November 26, 1945 at Camp Myles Standish, Mass.

Service in the 48th Division

With the post-World War II reorganization of the Georgia National Guard, the Gate City Guard was consolidated with Headquarters Battery, 179th Field Artillery Group to form Headquarters Company, 122nd Infantry Regiment, part of the newly activated 48th Infantry Division. The company was federally recognized May 8, 1947. With the conversion of the 48th ID to an armor division, the company was converted and redesignated Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Comat Command C, 48th Armor Division.

Guidon of Headquarters Company 122nd Infantry Regiment, 48th Infantry Division. Photo by Ian Alderman.

An Army reorganization in 1959 brought the inactivation of the 122nd Infantry and the redesignation of the Gate City Guard as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 102nd Signal Depot.

In May 1962, the unit moved to Decatur, and the following year was redesignated as Headquarters Company and Band of the 48th Armored Division Support Command. The unit received its current designation as the 116th Army Band January 1, 1968.

The 116th Army Band, directed by Warrant Officer Joe Maxey, provides music for the dedication of Stone Mountain's Memorial Plaza April 23, 1978.
Georgia National Guard Archives.

In the decades that followed its establishment, the 116th Army Band has been a fixture of ceremonies throughout Georgia. The 116th Army Band has one of the busiest schedules of any unit in the Georgia National Guard as it is frequently in demand for concerts. The 116th also provides ceremonial music for holiday observances, dedications and special events. 

The 116th Army Band performs at the change of command and change of responsibility ceremony for the 12nd Battalion 121st Infantry Regiment
in Forsyth, Ga. March 5, 2022. Photo by Maj. William Carraway

To add to the band’s busy schedule, Soldiers of the 116th were also called to active service as part of Georgia’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Sergeant 1st Class Adam Pyper of the 116th Army Band briefs Maj. Gen. Randall Simmons on the assistance Georgia National Guard Soldiers
and Airmen are rendering to theAugusta University Health testing operations center May 7, 2020. On March 22, 2022, Pyper was promoted
to 1st sergeant of the 116th. Photo by Capt. Fred Dablemont.


[1] History and Battle Record of 179 F.A. Bn., 1857-1945. Regensburg, Germany: Frederich Putset, 1945, 1.

[2] Carraway, William. “The Georgia Volunteers in the Spanish American War.” April 25, 2018


[3] Carraway, William. “The Georgia Volunteers in the Spanish American War.” April 25, 2018

[4] Center for Military History. Lineage and Honors Certificate, 108th Cavalry Regiment. N.D

[5] Historical and Pictorial Review 179th Field Artillery. The Army and Navy Publishing Company, Nashville 1941, 18.

[6] War Department, General Order #1, March 3, 1943

Monday, May 2, 2022

The 277th Maintenance Company: A History

By Maj. William Carraway

Historian, Georgia Army National Guard


May 2, 2010 - Guardsmen from Kennesaw’s 277th Maintenance Company receive an honorable sendoff from the city’s mayor, Mark Mathews,
and military dignitaries before deploying to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.

The 277th Maintenance Company was organized in Atlanta March 5, 1924 in the Georgia National Guard as Companies A and B, 200th Infantry.[1] The companies were redesignated June 9, 1924 as Companies A and B of the Atlanta-based 122nd Infantry Regiment.[2] On July 1, 1939, the companies were converted and redesignated as Batteries A and B of the 179th Field Artillery Regiment.[3]


FORT MCCLELLAN, Ala., July 27, 1932 -Company A, 122nd Infantry Regiment conducted annual training at Fort McClellan, Ala.
Georgia National Guard Archives.

The 179th FA was inducted into federal service February 24, 1941 in Atlanta and mobilized to Camp Blanding Florida for initial training.[4] The 179th conducted training during maneuvers in North Carolina and Mississippi before reaching Fort Sill in March 1943 where the 179th was reorganized with Company A and B continuing in service with the 179th Field Artillery Battalion. The 179th mobilized to the European theater of the war landing at Utah Beach August 12, 1944. The 179th FA provided fire support from the Normandy campaign to Germany. Returning home following World War II, The 179th was inactivated Dec. 9, 1945 at Camp Patrick Henry, Va.[5]

 On July 5, 1946, the 179th was reorganized and assigned to the division artillery of the 48th Infantry Division.[6] The unit was reorganized and federally recognized in Atlanta May 2, 1947.


FORT STEWART, Ga.  1959 - Two 8-inch self-propelled howitzers of the 1st Rocket/Howitzer Battalion, 179th Artillery from Atlanta, Ga. during annual training
 of the 48th Armored Division at Fort Stewart, Ga.  Image courtesy of the National Guard Educational Foundation, Washington D.C.

In 1955, the 48th Infantry Division was reorganized as an armor division.[7] On July 1, 1959, the 179th was reorganized and redesignated the 1st Rocket Howitzer battalion.[8] The 179th FA served until January 1, 1968 when it was converted to form the 177th Engineer Company.[9] The unit was reorganized and redesignated July 1, 1971 as Company B, 878th Engineer Battalion[10] and on December 1, 1971, received its current designation as the 277th Maintenance Company.[11]


On September 1, 1997, the 277th moved to its present location in Kennesaw.[12]

The 277th was ordered into active federal service Feb. 10, 2003 at Kennesaw for service during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The unit returned to state control June 19, 2004.

On April 29, 2010, the 277th was ordered into active federal service for Operation Enduring Freedom and was released from active federal service June 2, 2011 and reverted to state control. For its efforts in Afghanistan, the 277th was awarded the Meritorious Unit Citation.


Georgia National Guardsmen with the Kennesaw-based, 277th Maintenance Company sort and organize meals for the Atlanta Public School
system at Fredrick Douglas High School in Atlanta, April 14, 2020. Guardsmen are assisting civilian authorities across the state during
the COVID-19 pandemic. Photo by Sgt. 1st Class R.J. Lannom Jr.

The 277th Maintenance Company has supported numerous emergency response operations and has most recently provided personnel and expertise in support of the state’s COVID-19 response effort. The relevance of the 277th to the modern war fight was demonstrated as Thirty personnel of the 277 Maintenance Company mobilized to Camp Shelby from February 10 to March 14 in support of the premobilization training of an Army Reserve unit.

Private 1st Class. Pascual Velasquez, a wheeled vehicle mechanic with the 277th Maintenance Company, trains on the grinding tool
to cut an alignment torsion bar on an M1085 LMTV on 16 February 2022 at Camp Shelby, Mississippi. The unit is currently providing maintenance support
 for an Army Reserve unit who is training for an upcoming mobilization. Photo by Pfc. Jessica Broome.

[1] MB 325.4-Georgia-Feb. 27, 1924.

[2] MB 325.4-Georgia-June 2, 1924.

[3] Center for Military History, LH, 122nd Infantry Regiment, August 1955.

[4] Center for Military History, LH, 277th Maintenance Company, ND.

[5] Carraway, William. Historic Georgia Guard Units Join the Fight in France: The 179th and 945th FA Battalions Enter the ETO August 12, 1944.

[6] GO 17, Dec. 31, 1946.

[7] NG-AROTO.325.4 Nov 1, 1955.

[8] RA 73-59, July 1, 1959.

[9] RA 71-67 January 1, 1968.

[10] RA 135-71 July 1, 1971.

[11] RA 190-71 Dec. 1, 1971.

[12] OA 199-97, 22 August 1997.

[13] DA GO 1950-43, 75.

Wednesday, April 20, 2022

The 110th CSSB: A Brief History

By Major William Carraway

Historian, Georgia Army National Guard


Left: Distinctive unit insignia of the 560th Engineer Battalion and 110th CSSB. Right: SOUTHPORT, N.C., May 9, 2015— Sergeant 1st Class
Van Bryant of the 110th Combat Sustainment Support Battalion double checks his manifest, insuring accountability of cargo containers
being loaded for distribution to the six joint munitions command depots located nationwide during Operation Patriot Bandoleer. Photo by Sgt. 1st Class Gerard Brown.

The Headquarters and Headquarters Company of the 110th Combat Sustainment Support Battalion was organized and federally recognized in the Georgia Army National Guard as the Columbus-based HHC, 560th Engineer Combat Battalion, part of the 48th Infantry Division April 20, 1948.[1]

Following the conversion of the 48th Infantry Division to the 48th Armor Division, the 560th was reorganized as the 560th Armored Engineer Battalion November 1, 1955.[2] On July 1, 1959, the unit reorganized as the 560th Engineer Battalion.[3]

FORT MCCLELLAN, Ala. August 20, 1955 - Headquarters and Service Company linemen string wire for the 560th Engineer Battalion bivouac site.
Left to right: Staff Sgt. William L. Lloyd and Private 1st Class Dan Bevan Jr., both of Columbus. Georgia National Guard Archives.

The 560th continued to serve as the combat engineer element of the 48th AD until the division inactivated in 1968 whereupon the 560th was assigned to the newly created 265th Engineer Group along with the 878th Engineer Battalion.[4] Soldiers of the 265th, 878th and 560th participated in Exercise Eastern Castle in Southeast Asia in 1992.[5]

In 1996, as part of a reorganization and reduction of the Georgia Army National Guard, the 560th Engineer Battalion was broken up and elements formed the headquarters company of the 110th Support Battalion.[6] Three years later, elements of the 110th were called to support Golden Cargo 99 a multi-state effort that saw the 110th serving as task force headquarters for the transport of multiple launch rocket system pods from Illinois to Texas.[7]

The 110th mobilized in 2003 for Operation Noble Eagle[8] and in 2007 relocated to Tifton, Ga. where it is presently stationed.

The 110th deployed to Iraq in 2010 in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.[9] Two years later, Soldiers of the 110th mobilized to Burkina Faso in support of the Africa Deployment Assistance Partnership Team training mission.[10] In 2015 the unit provided command and control for Operation Patriot Bandoleer and mobilized personnel to South Korea for Exercise Ulchi Freedom. [11] The 110th again supported Patriot Bandoleer in 2017.[12]

FORT STEWART, Ga. October 10, 2016 - Georgia Army National Guardsmen of the 110th Combat Service Support Battalion and 148th Brigade Support
Battalion prepare pallets of water for transport to points of distribution following Hurricane Matthew. Photo by Capt. Robert Nash.

Units of the 110th have supported hurricane response providing transportation assets to deliver humanitarian relief supplies following hurricanes Irma, Matthew, Michael and Dorian[13]. Soldiers of the 110th also performed key roles during Georgia’s coordinated response to the Coronavirus outbreak staffing foodbanks in Valdosta, Atlanta and Thomasville while others assisted warehouse operations for the Department of Public Health. Still other Soldiers staffed specimen points of collection in Bulloch, and Tift Coffee County.

Georgia Army National Guardsman, Spc. Gary Poppell, a motor transportation sergeant with the Augusta-based 1148th Transportation Company,
unloads breakfast meals during the Atlanta Public Schools food distribution event at Douglass High School, Atlanta, Ga., April 20, 2020.
Photo by Sgt. 1st Class R.J. Lannom Jr.

The Headquarters Company of the 110th CSSB is responsible for command and control of the largest battalion in the Georgia Army National Guard, The 110th is presently comprised of the Fort Gordon-based 1148th Transportation Company, the 277th Maintenance Company at Kennesaw and the 1230th Transportation Company in Thomasville. The subordinate elements of the 110th CSSB have deployed multiple times in support of overseas and domestic missions, most recently in 2020 when Soldiers of the 1230th TC supported the U.S. Customs and Border Patrol on the southwest border of the United States and in 2021 when Soldiers of the 110th CSSB supported Exercise Agile Spirit in the Country of Georgia.


Command Sgt. Maj. Steven Phoenix, senior enlisted advisor of the 110th Combat Sustainment Support Battalion, 78th Troop Command,
Georgia Army National Guard, salutes during the opening ceremony of Exercise Agile Spirit 2021, July 26, 2021 at Senaki Air Base, Georgia.
Photo by Cpl. Rydell Tomas.

[1] Military Department of the State of Georgia General Order No. 17 December 31, 1946, 2.

[2] NG AROTO 325.4 October 17, 1955, 7.

[3] OA 73-59 1 June 10, 1959, 7.

[4] State of Georgia Department of Defense. Annual Report FY 1968. (Atlanta: Georgia Department of Defense Sept. 1, 1968)

[5] State of Georgia Department of Defense. Annual Report FY 1993. (Atlanta: Georgia Department of Defense 1993) 7.

[6] OA 57-96 April 1, 1996, 1.

[7] “Georgia Units Haul MLRS Pods During “Golden Cargo.” The Georgia Guardsman Magazine. Summer, 1999, 22.

[8] Permanent Order 193-1 and 194-6. Demob 1 May 04, Permanent Order 188-65.

[9] Lineage and Honors Certificate, 110th CSSB.

[10] Caleb Waldron. “110th CSSB Provides Key Support to African Nations.” The Georgia Guardsman Magazine. July 2012, 22.

[11] Georgia Department of Defense Annual Report. 2015, 20.

[12] Georgia Department of Defense Annual Report. 2017, 19.

[13] Georgia Department of Defense Annual Report. 2016-2019.